Nicaragua is a republic consisting of four state powers: executive, legislative, judicial and electoral. Executive power is exercised by the President who is elected by universal suffrage for a period of five years. Legislative power is invested in the National Assembly which consists of 92 deputies elected by universal suffrage. The Supreme Court of Justice is the highest judicial body and consists of 16 judges. Elections of the executive and legislative authorities are the responsibility of the Supreme Electoral Council, the institution corresponding to the electoral power. Administratively, Nicaragua is divided into 153 municipalities, 15 departments and two autonomous regions.

Political parties:

  • Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC): http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partido_Liberal_Constitucionalista
  • Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN): http://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com/
  • Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance (ALN): http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alianza_Liberal_Nicarag%C3%BCense
  • Sandinista Renovation Movement (MRS): http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movimiento_Renovador_Sandinista
  • Let’s Go with Eduardo Movement (MVE): http://www.vamosconeduardo.org/vce/

    A brief history

    The FSLN candidate, Daniel Ortega, won the 2006 national elections with 38% of the vote. Both nationally and internationally Ortega has been much criticized for his support to the Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC), considered to be a terrorist group by 31 countries. He maintains an anti-USA policy which means that the relationship between Nicaragua and the United States of America is not at all friendly. Together with other Latin American heads of state he belongs to what is known as the “Southern Bloc”, a politico-commercial association led by Hugo Chávez, the Venezuelan President.    

    Nicaragua’s history has been characterized by internal armed conflict. Since its independence from Spain in 1821, several armed movements have emerged to fight what was considered to be other countries’ “colonialism”, mainly that of the United States. So that in 1857 there was the National War against occupation by troops under the command of William Walker, the filibuster. In 1893 a liberal revolution brought José Santos Zelaya to power who subsequently ruled as President for 16 years.   

    Zelaya was overthrown in 1909 and two years later Adolfo Díaz took over the presidency. During his administration Díaz relied on the support of the United States, this nation intervened in Nicaragua for the first time in 1912, sending a contingent of marines. 

    The marines stayed in Nicaragua until 1925. After their departure there were fresh uprisings so they returned the following year. From this moment on, the United States troops fought the guerilla army led by the Liberal, Augusto C. Sandino. In 1928 fresh elections were carried out and the following year the Presidency was occupied by the Liberal General, José María Moncada. The marines were withdrawn on January 1, 1933.

    Anastasio Somoza García was appointed Commander of the National Guard by the new President Juan Bautista Sacasa, who a year later ordered the execution of Augusto C. Sandino, the guerilla leader. In 1937 he was elected President, establishing a dynasty that would govern the country as a dictatorship for more than forty years. In 1967, his son Anastasio Somoza Debayle succeeded him in power, until 1979 when the dictator was overthrown by an armed movement led by the FSLN. This was the start of what would later be known as the Sandinista Popular Revolution.

    Taken from: http://www.aghn.edu.ni/breve.html

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